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Spot metering examples

Examples of when to use spot metering mode: 1. When your subject is backlit To avoid including the bright light behind your subject, which will influence the exposure reading, meter only your subject so that they are not underexposed Let's look at a couple of examples where spot metering is extremely helpful: Example 1. Let's say you are photographing someone who is brightly backlit. If you let your camera auto-expose, most likely, the camera will make the correct exposure on the backlighting, leaving your subject underexposed Spot Metering Dark Subjects The same can happen with a dark subject, for example a black bird with very bright surroundings. A bird takes up a smaller portion of the scene compared to its surroundings. If you keep your camera set to pattern metering, you'll find all you can see is black and no detail in the actual feathers

When and how to use spot metering for accurate exposur

  1. The image featured on this page is a perfect example of spot metering. If evaluative or matrix metering were used for this shot, the model's face would be darker and muddier looking because the camera would have averaged out the whole scene, which is pretty bright. The bright look in photos has become quite popular in portraiture lately
  2. Spot metering is typically used in scene that has a lot of contrast. The reading is taken from a very small area and then the exposure is composed. As the name 'spot metering' implies, the 'single' focus point option should be selected. Examples of Matrix vs. Spot Metering
  3. Some other examples of situations where you might find spot metering helpful are scenes that are evenly lit but where your subject is significantly darker or lighter than its surroundings. For example, a white dog shot against a dark background or a person dressed in black standing in front of a white building
  4. The spot-metering method of ETTR is more precise and accurate than trying to gauge the histogram/blinkies, at least for most subjects. It also means you don't have to worry about using an ultra-flat Picture Control style or UniWB, so the preview on your camera now can look more like the final image
  5. Spot metering is especially helpful when the subject is much brighter or darker than the background, and the subject does not make up a majority of the image. Most cameras, when set to spot metering, are set to measure an area of the image as small as 1.5% of the total image area
  6. Spot metering is most useful when you're photographing a composition where there's a lot of contrast. Taking a spot meter reading from the main part of your composition will allow you to expose it well. Portrait photography is one example of when it's helpful to switch your metering mode to spot. The face of the person is normally the.
  7. 01 Spot the mode. To change the metering mode on most cameras, either go to the shooting menu or press the metering mode button and use the input dial. Spot metering is shown by a small dot in the.

Spot metering is the least used camera metering mode but there are some situations where using it is a must, like when your subject (or the most important area of your subject) occupies a very small area in the frame. The best example to understand spot metering mode is photographing the moon at night Spot metered off the sky to get a silhouette sunset and deeper tones in the sky. Silhouetted figure toasting marshmallows at a community bonfire - Matsumoto, Japan. Of all its many versatile uses, Spot Metering is the mode you should select if you want to create silhouettes. Meter off the brightest part of the scene and select your settings Getting The Perfect Exposure The First Time Around. Within Photography 101 we cover several scenarios and do several examples of Spot Metering, such as spot metering on a model's skin to get the perfect skin tone in one try.That's always a good use, but you can use spot metering to get the proper exposure for anything; skin, the sky, an article of clothing, or even a particular part of a.

When using Spot Metering, your camera will use just a single point to select the exposure. Consider Spot Metering the sniper shot of metering modes. Center Weighted is the shotgun, and Evaluative Metering the nuclear bomb. Spot Metering for landscape photography is a precision tool: you select the brightness of a very small part of your frame Spot metering is useful when there is a large brightness difference between the subject and background, for example when taking photos of a spotlighted performer on stage, sunrise or sunset. Since this metering mode involves determination of the metering point, it is rather hard to use for photography novices The Different Metering Modes. There are three main metering modes: Center-weighted average metering; spot and partial metering; and evaluative, pattern, or matrix metering. On modern digital cameras, you can choose between them. The process varies by manufacturer and camera, so look up your manual if you want to switch modes 3. Spot Metering. Spot metering mode is indicated by the little circular dot. Unlike other two methods, while metering the light, spot metering only gives the priority to a small area where the current focus point is and ignores everything else inside the frame. According to the Nikon, it meters 3.5mm circle (about 2% of the frame) centered on. Spot metering is also helpful in situations in which the contrast in the scene is a result of colors, and not light, as is the case in the image of the dog above. It's simply a matter of selecting the most appropriate AF point to get a reading and ensuring that point falls over the area of the image you'd like to be well-exposed

How to Use Spot Metering to‏ Help Your Photography

When To Use Spot Metering - SLR Photography Guid

It is only a spot meter and is extremely simple in operation. It measures a one-degree spot through a massive viewfinder. It reads reflective light in terms of exposure value (E.V.) and reads in one-third stop increments. The reason this type of meter is superior to other types of spot meters is because of the scale that rotates around the lens In the example above, pointing a wide angle spot meter to the same spot would give a correct zone III reading. Bruce Barnbaum prefers using a 7.5-degree semi-spot meter over a 1-degree spot meter. Hopefully being constructive, maybe the Reveni Labs Spot Meter should be redesigned for, say, 7.5-degree Jan 11, 2012. #4. The big difference between spot metering and evaluative, is that spot reads one small area, and ignores the rest of the scene. So the reading you get, is entirely based on that small area. That's the easy part. Getting proper exposure doesn't come down to which metering mode you use p.1 #6 · p.1 #6 · R6 (& R5) Spot Metering follow focus point (face detect) This is a perfect example of Canon CrippleHammer™. Especially on a MILC there is precisely zero reason why this shouldn't be a feature on a $3000 body. I could understand not wanting to add confusing menu items to a consumer level body, but the users of an R or R5 or. To take full advantage of the Zone System, you MUST use a light meter with a spot meter function. In my case I use a Sekonic L-558 in aperture priority; I set the aperture I'm using and the meter gives me a shutter speed. (I've seen videos on YouTube of people using an incident meter and the Zone System

How to use spot metering for portraits - Improve Photograph

  1. As the name suggests, Spot metering offers the most precise metering - anywhere from 1.5%-10% of the total picture area, depending on the camera - while at the other end of the scale, Evaluative.
  2. Metering for optimal exposure is crucial in all forms of photography, but especially so for landscape and cityscape applications. When you're shooting outside during the day, you've got to deal with the sun and the sky, which of course can be extremely bright, and you may also have very dark shadows relative to the sky within the same frame
  3. I have an sb700, and it's my understanding that the metering mode affects the flash metering mode - matrix & centre-wieghted = TTL BL and spot = TTL (there is no switch). I had thought I could avoid using manual, and stay in aperture priority and lock exposure (D610 allows assignment of custom fn button to lock and hold f2 - AE lock (hold))
  4. There are many types of meters and metering techniques, like in-camera metering, spot metering, incident metering, the sunny 16 rule, and even smartphone metering apps. Since there are so many ways to get a good exposure, we're going over some of the more common ways to meter in this post

Spot Metering. Reduce that center circle even more and you will be using the camera's spot-metering mode. This allows the photographer to meter reflectivity from a very small portion of the scene. In the era before digital, the spot was relegated to a tiny region of the center of the frame. For example, you might be sitting in a. For example, if your subject has the sun behind her, then this mode would expose the face of the person correctly — even though everything else would probably get heavily overexposed, unless the light is filtered or diffused. Spot Metering. Spot Metering only evaluates the light around your focus point and ignores everything else To interpret what the exposure meter tells you, you need to be aware of the current Metering mode on your Nikon D5500, which determines which part of the frame the camera analyzes to calculate exposure. The Metering mode affects the meter reading in M mode as well as the exposure settings that the camera chooses [ Spot Metering. Much like center weighted metering, spot metering emphasizes the center of the frame. The only difference is the width of the sample area. Spot metering only emphasizes a small spot in the middle of the frame, discounting all other sections outside of it. Have a look at the graphic and you will get a better idea

When to Use Matrix & Spot Metering Light Stalkin

  1. Full article at http://www.slrlounge.com/in-camera-metering-modes-tutorial Evaluative, matrix, spot, center-weighted average, partial; Yeah, we know metering..
  2. Reflected vs. Incident Metering. Below is a perfect example of the benefit of a hand-held meter. This scene was shot with two 100w modeling lights, both placed 45 degrees from the subject, bounced into umbrellas. The first image was shot with the Matrix Metering function, the second with the Sekonic L-358 Light Meter
  3. Partial Metering is a camera-metering mode in which the metering is weighted at the center of the viewfinder (unlike center-weighted in which the camera averages the exposure based on the reading at the center). You can think of Partial Metering as expanded spot metering, because the area that is metered is specific, but not tiny (roughly.
  4. For example, to avoid blown out highlights when doing still life images I always use the 'highlight mode' that in my opinion works pretty well, as opposed to using spot metering for example. 1
  5. In this video, I give a quick overview of how I use my Sekonic L-558R and the spot meter function for my film photography.My go-to for music in my videos (FR..
  6. es the shutter speed and aperture, based on lighting conditions and ISO speed. Metering options often include partial, evaluative zone or matrix, center-weighted and spot metering. Each of these have subject lighting conditions for which they excel — and for which they fail

In the video, I would have liked to see some examples of spot metering, evaluative metering, and centered weight metering of the same scene to see what the difference is, with a description of which part of the scene he did the spot metering on and locked up. The image of the mountain with patches of snow reflected in the water here, for instance Example of Spot Metering: D800 camera A mode, f/5.6, ISO 100, hazy bright sun, near noon. Black and gray and white cards. Spot metering on black card, f/5.6 1/60 sec Black came out gray, scene is Overexposed. Spot metering on gray card, f/5.6 1/400 sec Gray came out gray, about right Any difference in metering incident vs. spot metering for the darkest area with detail? Once metered, I get a suggestion of shutter and f-stop (using a simple Sekonic L-318). I have read that you leave the f-stop suggestion alone (for DoF) and only adjust shutter speed to bring the shadow region into zone 5

How to Choose an Exposure Metering Mode on Your Nikon

3. Spot Metering. Spot metering mode is indicated by the little circular dot. Unlike other two methods, while metering the light, spot metering only gives the priority to a small area where the current focus point is and ignores everything else inside the frame. According to the Nikon, it meters 3.5mm circle (about 2% of the frame) centered on. Practice Spot Metering Mode. Spot Metering is great when you need pinpoint control over the exposure. Sometimes, in tricky lighting situations, Spot Metering is the only method you can use to get the correct exposure. Back lighting is a good example of when to use Spot Metering. I probably spend around 80% of my in this mode Our spot-metering example shows a scene where you need to use the meter to evaluate the range and then set the appropriate exposure for the effect that you want. You can try using the camera's range-expanding tools (Canon's Auto Lighting Optimizer and Highlight Tone Priority, Nikon's Active D-Lighting, Sony's D-Range Optimizer, etc.) or.

The spot meter is useful when you have uneven lighting across the frame but want a specific area of the image or video to be exposed correctly. GoPro's Spot Meter Explained. Now, the longer version. The spot meter relates to the way in which the camera calculates the automatic exposure Partial metering, which is generally a Canon mode, is similar to Spot metering but uses a bit more of the frame to make its decision. The embedded video has some great, straightforward teaching in it so if you're struggling with this and have just under 10 minutes to spare, have a watch for an aha! moment Light metering is fundamental because it helps the camera know precisely where and how to look at the light within the frame.Without understanding light metering in photography, you can end up with a poorly exposed image even if there is plenty of light to work with.. Knowing how to use the light meter relies on understanding the interplay of shutter speed, ISO, and aperture

Spot metering DOES meter on your FOCUS point. Center Weighted meters on the CENTER of your view finder. Remember, she mentioned she focused on the white card and black card using center weighted metering, but the camera was metering the center of the picture which is the dress on the doll, so you should expect similar results Pentax Spot Exposure Meter I found this spotmeter with chrome dials in an old advertising that must be younger than 1962, as it had a Honeywell H3v on the same page. The patent for the 3/21 spotmeter was also filed in 1962 Spot metering, on the other hand, is effective when you just want to make sure that a specific area of your image is exposed properly. Meanwhile, centre-weighted metering measures the light in the centre area of the image frame, and therefore works best when your main subject or interest is in the centre of the frame Use the 1-degree spot mode feature on a handheld meter to read just the moon, minus the sky. That will give you a middle-toned moon. If you want it to appear lighter in the picture, add 2/3 or one full f-stop of exposure, depending on your taste. In image 3, I tweaked the exposure by + 2/3 f-stop. Image 3

Since there is rarely a single method to determining how much of a scene's light you should measure, most of today's SLR cameras are built with three metering methods: center-weighted, evaluative, and spot metering. Most point-n-shoot or manual cameras (or anything older than 10-15 years) use center-weighted metering Spot metering . Spot metering gives you the greatest control over your exposure reading. Essentially the entire reading is based on a very small part of the scene. Most of the time it's the center of the frame, although some cameras allow you to choose the spot based on the position of the focus bracket 2.12 This image was taken using Spot metering. Exposure: ISO 100, f/6.3, 1/6 second. For example, if you're shooting a portrait and you want to ensure that the skin tones are properly exposed, you can switch to Spot metering mode, move close and fill the frame with the subject's skin, and then use that meter reading to make the exposure Spot metering is my first choice; if your particular camera doesn't have spot, partial would be the next choice. Metering a smaller area allows segregation of specific areas or objects, and, yes, you can zoom in to better isolate an element, as needed. Meter different things and watch the meter change as you do so This book fills completely in the gaps. In this e-book, we tackle both exposure and metering - to the extreme! Just wait till you dive into the 670 + pages jam-packed with information, illustrations, photos, and examples that directly translate to killer images on your memory card each and every time you head out

Which is best? Spot, Center Weight, or Matrix metering

This API gives you an unauthenticated experience to get retail rates for all Azure services. Use the API to explore prices for Azure services against different regions and different SKUs. The programmatic API can also help you create your own tools for internal analysis and price comparison across SKUs and regions A light meter is a device used to measure the amount of light. In photography, a light meter (more correctly an exposure meter) is used to determine the proper exposure for a photograph. The meter will include either a digital or analog calculator which displays the correct shutter speed and f-number for optimum exposure, given a certain lighting situation and film speed Metering - Belarusian translation, definition, meaning, synonyms, pronunciation, transcription, antonyms, examples. English - Belarusian Translator Film by Philip Greenspun - explains why film can't represent the whole tonal range in most scenes, with examples of film response curves. Exposure by Philip Greenspun - most common approach to metering: meter once and compensate if necessary. Light metering by Klaus Schroiff - explains spot, center-weighted and multi-zone/matrix metering modes

For example, if you're a landscape photographer, spot metering for the shadow of your subject will give you more predictable results than incident metering will. Cameras with internal light meters typically have three modes to choose from: matrix (or evaluative) metering, center-weighted metering, or spot metering Spot metering is activated by setting your camera on one of (usually) three metering modes.The other two options are evaluative metering (Canon) also called matrix metering (Nikon), and centre-weighted metering. Some Canon cameras also offer a fourth option called 'partial' metering

McDougall gave the good examples of some pavement or a wet sandy area. Using a spot meter is, however, different when you're shooting a high contrast scene. For instance, if you're shooting indoors on a bright sunny day, you may want to balance the exposure for the outside as well. You'll be working with a wide range of tones in this kind. The metering spot's location is either in the center of the frame, or tied to the selected or active autofocus point; the logic there is that you would typically want to ensure your subject is both in focus and properly exposed. Variations on the spot meter include types that are biased for highlights or shadows - i.e. you meter a shadow or. This mode limits the metering area to the central part of the viewfinder. Spot metering covers about 1% to 3.5% of the image area (typically 3.5%). Partial metering covers about 9.5%. Metering is averaged over the entire scene with emphasis placed on the center area (typically 75% center - marked dark gray and black in the icon, 25% outside) You have two options in this case: set the camera to +2.5 EV, or, as I do, switch to manual exposure and dial in a slower shutter speed and / or a faster aperture manually, to get to +3 EV. During the shoot of the scene displayed below, the metering was performed off the white top hat on the snowman's head with a correction of +3 EV in the. Meter Calibration. Jun 23, 2009 Alan Tech, Zone System and Metering. According to Ted Orland 's poster Photographic Truths : No two light meters agree.. Sadly, that does seem to be pretty much the truth - unless you do something about it. For years I had a pair of supposedly matched Pentax digital spot meters that were never.

The Spot Metering Method for Precise ETT

1. Set your camera to Spot Meter. 2. Determine what Zone you will be metering off of and go ahead and spot meter off of that area. 3. Dial in the exposure according to the charts below. 4. Double check your exposure by checking the histogram, checking blinkies, or by chimping (whatever method you normally use) and adjust accordingly by 1/3 stops One alternative to spot metering is center-weighted metering, in which a large, central region of the frame is used to collect a majority of the metering information, while the rest of the frame still contributes some information.Some people find this a reasonable compromise between spot metering and evaluative/matrix metering, though how well it will work for you in practice will depend both. Pocket Light Meter is a paid mobile app capable of metering reflected light and calculating reciprocity. The interface is very simple. This app uses the phone camera to reflect and meter the reflected light. In default, you see all the details of the scene. But if you touch any detail on the screen, the display will switch to a spot measurement

Zone System And Metering | Alan Ross Photography

By using light meter apps with spot metering you can measure the lighting levels before a photoshoot. It allows quick diaphragm adjustment and achieving a good exposure. Thus, you can shoot high-quality landscape or plant photos and footage without purchasing overpriced equipment Spot metersare reflected light meters with narrow sensitivity angles, from 10 o to 1 o for classic models.They are the most accurate way to implement the zone system. Without one you have to compromise, but with practice (know your meter's sensitivity pattern well!) you should be able to make good exposures most of the time, and know when to bracket (contrasty situations)

Spot-metering and Partial-metering on the Canon 5D III (and possibly other models) does NOT meter off the focus point, but rather meters off the center of the frame. See page 167-168 of the manual. This is important to know for Canon 5D users especially if your style is to offset the subject in the frame using the rule of thirds Spot: Camera meters circle 4 mm (0.16 in.) in diameter (approximately 1.5% of frame). Circle is centered on current focus point, making it possible to meter off-center subjects (if non-CPU or AF-S Fisheye NIKKOR 8-15mm f/3.5-4.5E ED lens is used or if auto-area AF is in effect, camera will meter center focus point) Spot Metering is handy when you know exactly what you want exposed properly and it is relatively small. Spot metering is a circle of about 2-3% of the frame (cameras will often show an actual center spot in the viewfinder to aid in selecting the area to meter). In this example, the box is closer to center-weighted than true evaluative. But. A Zone System is a system by which you understand and control every level of light and dark to your best advantage. It works in digital just as it does for sheet film. Having a system allows you to understand and be in control, instead of taking whatever you get. Ansel Adams was asked in the 1950s if he thought the Zone System was still.

How to Fine Tune Your Exposures With Spot Meterin

The definitive guide to camera exposure: tips, inspiring examples, exposure triangle, stop scales, reciprocity law, exposure value (EV), dynamic range, histogram, camera metering modes & exposure modes, exposure compensation, exposing to the right (ETTR), how to expose step by step, zone system, exposing video, lens filters, bracketing - including a free 400-page exposur Spot metering looks only at a small area of a frame to measure exposure. A built-in light meter can switch between these patterns. A handheld light meter only does spot metering, incident metering, or both, such as the one shown in the examples here In the snow example, the camera thinks the snow is 18% grey and under exposed, hence they grey looking images you often get. So with a basic understanding of how metering works, lets look at typical metering modes, namely, matrix, center weighted and spot. A knowledge of metering preserves definition in the ice] by Jason Row Photography, on Flick 18 teaching videos for photographers who want to learn about exposure and spot metering. More than 85 minutes of video content - in-depth explanations, examples, workflow, and case studies for mastering manual exposure mode. Workshop-style lessons taught by professional in the field

Valerie Hayken Photography and Design Camera Meters and

Understanding Exposure Metering Mode

Spot metering Spot metering takes a reading from a very small part of the image (between 1 and 5 per cent), and ignores the exposure of the rest of the scene. for example, subjects backlit by. Chapter 8 Metering for Operations and Maintenance . 8.1 Introduction . Metering and sub-metering of energy and resource use is a critical component of a comprehensive O&M program. Metering for O&M and energy/resource eficiency refers to the measurement of quantities of energy delivered, for example, kilowatt-hours of electricity, cubic fee

When to use spot metering TechRada

MeteringAreas parameter is for auto-focus metering.. There is no Android api for the exposure metering modes. You need to find proper undocumented parameter name and values to set it (for example, by dumping all parameters via native_getParameters).. For example, for the Samsung Galaxy Note 3 parameter name is metering and accepted values are center, matrix and spot Classic meter for portraits; recommended when using filters with an exposure factor (filter factor) over 1×. b Spot: Camera meters circle centered on current focus point, making it possible to meter off-center subjects (if auto-area AF is in effect, camera will meter center focus point). Diameter of circle for viewfinder photography is 3.5 mm. Exposure metering - bride & the bride's dress. From a technical point of view, photographing a bride in her dress can be a challenge depending on the lighting. If everything is under your control as the photographer, and you're lighting the formal portraits with off-camera manual flash, then it is essentially a study of the zone system EXAMPLE The accompanying data (Table Q2) shows spot speeds collected at Jalan Duta, Kuala Lumpur. Based on statistical method, determine the values of the following: i) Arithmetic mean speed ii) Mode speed iii) Median speed iv) Standard deviation Speed Class (km/hr) No of vehicles 10 -14.9 2 15 -19.9 6 20 -24.9 5 25 -29.9 4 30 -34.9 7. The Zone System and Digital - Let your Spot Meter do the Work. Mar 9, 2012 Alan Zone System and Metering. As I discussed in a previous blog, effective application of the Zone System (ZS) really requires the use of a reliable hand-held spot meter. There are basically two kinds of spot meters, those with analog dials for calculating exposure.

How to Get Perfect Exposures in One Shot - SLR Lounge

Section 8: Example Metering Sessions. In the final section of this course you'll see several more live demonstrations of the metering process out in the field, bringing together all the topics you learned in previous sections. Nick will take you through his thought process for manual metering after-the-fact on several difficult scenes Understanding & Using Ansel Adam's Zone System. This post is part of a series called Ready, Set, Exposure. The Zone System is a technique that was formulated by Ansel Adams and Fred Archer back in the 1930's. It is an approach to a standardized way of working that guarantees a correct exposure in every situation, even in the trickiest lighting. Spot metering with the Sekonic L-758Cine light meter helped preserve details in this truss bridge when shooting against a bright sky on 4x5 film. The Sekonic L-758Cine light meter, in addition to supporting some other features for my live stage lighting work, was the perfect choice to use in conjunction with large format film Spot metering focuses the metering on a very small portion of the scene (typically 1°~5° angle of view). This allows you to measure the amount of contrast on various portions in order to determine the contrast range and appropriate Zone values of each area. for example, are the sky or that the central area is the main subject). Incident.

Metering | Photography Step By Step

There are 2 spot meter usages: You know a (single?) spot you want to meter. Like a musician on stage 's face. Everything metering 1° will do that. For scanning a scene according to the Zone System, you'd better get a spot meter with readout in it's viewfinder. My old Soligor was that way, I suppose Pentax are too. Gossen attachments are not With a handheld meter the angle of coverage is usually fixed, for example 40 degrees. You need to keep this in mind when aiming the meter to take readings. 02 Spot metering. Some more advanced handheld meters offer spot metering. Here, you look through an eyepiece to place a central spot metering area over the region you want to take a reading. The spot metering mode measures only about 2.7 % of the picture area, providing the photographer with extremely precise exposure control. It is often chosen for very difficult shooting situations, as when a small subject is surrounded by a much larger, and much brighter or much darker background The meter is able to memorize up to 3 separate exposure readings. Each is displayed as a marker against the analog scale, making comparisons between highlight and shadow areas, for example, very easy to visualize. There is an average button which displays the average of 2 or 3 readings. Very well thought-out

Canon metering modes: how to get perfectly exposed imagesAir Compressors - Intertronics

For example, the value 0.98765would be a max price of $0.98765 USD per hour. If you set the max price to be -1 , the VM won't be evicted based on price. The price for the VM will be the current price for spot or the price for a standard VM, which ever is less, as long as there is capacity and quota available Partial metering for nature photography Nature photographers can also benefit from partial metering when photographing wildlife. It doesn't matter if your subject is people or wildlife. The same theory applies. Techniques Glossary Partial metering Join Now Join ePHOTOzine, the friendliest photography community.. Partial Metering Found on Canon DSLR cameras, Partial Metering is similar to Spot. In this example, net metering should come before third party financing in order of adoption. Each of the 37 clean energy policies that CNEE analyzed is also assigned to a level of the stack based on whether the policy is best characterized as a market preparation (1st tier), market creation (2nd Tier), or market expansion (3rd tier) policy An example of a camera lens at this focal length is the popular Canon EF 400mm F/5.6. With a crop-sensor camera like the Canon EOS 7D Mark II we use, we have found it to be a very versatile and capable field of view for most types of bird photography. Canon EF 400mm F/5.6L