First hand accounts of Native Americans

The written accounts available to us are primarily from two sources—Indians' oral histories as recorded by non-Indians for publication, and statements to Europeans who recorded them later. The selections here represent both modes of transmission: MEXICA (Aztec) & TLAXCALA: first-hand accounts compiled by Spanish missionaries in the 1500 The encounters of the Indians and Europeans range from welcoming to guarded to disdainful. Verrazzano's report to the king of France is the earliest first-hand account of European exploration of the North American mainland—a major document in your study. [Giovanni da Verrazzano, Letter to King Francis I of France, 1524 There are numerous first hand accounts of Native Americans who experienced violence, harsh limitations and life-long scars from their time in boarding schools. These schools are a part of a larger Native American history that tells of the white washing of a population. The overall experience went hand in hand with Captain Richard Henry Pratt. First hand accounts of any event are usually the best source for information. This book contains 15 accounts of people that were captured by Native Americans and their experiences among them. These are some amazing stories and a very interesting and educational look into the lives of Native Americans during this time The following is an account of the Trail of Tears by Effie Oaks Flemmings, a granddaughter of an Native American tribe member. After grandpa died, grandmother, made her home in the winter with the Tom Hibbins, at the home that she and grandfather settled

6. Indians' Accounts, Contact, American Beginnings: 1492 ..

Contact, American Beginnings: 1492-1690, Primary Resources

At the outbreak of the Civil War, they were living in Richmond. On April 21, 1861, Charlie Baughman and his brothers Greer and George (the latter resided in Amite County, Miss.) enlisted in the elite F Company of the 1st Regiment Virginia Volunteers. The Baughman brothers did not have long to wait before their first encounter with the Federals This book is an important addition in the field of Indian educational studies because of its emphasis on interviews and first-hand accounts of experiences in the Indian boarding schools, particularly in its breadth. Lomawaima, K. T., & McCarty, T. (2006). To Remain an Indian: Lessons in Democracy from a Century of Native American Education A few of the stories happen elsewhere and with different tribes or bands of Indians. These are first-hand eye-witness accounts of unbelievable extreme cruelty of the most unimaginable type perpetrated by the Indians on a variety of white people, including the people telling the stories who were able to eventually escape

Correspondence between Brown and his brother Samuel provides documentation on Indian-White relations during the period of Western settlement after the American Revolution, and includes accounts of Indian wars, raids, and the desperate position of the native population to retain ther lands in the Mid-West and South Indian Self-Rule: First-Hand Accounts of Indian-White Relations from Roosevelt to Reagan is a comprehensive and methodical review of fifty years of Native American history since the Indian reorganization act Details that stretch credibility, such as pots of gold, pointed and belled caps, games of ninepins, etc., could conceivably be embellishments added over generations to some genuine accounts of sightings. Throughout Native North America, Bigfoot is seen as a kind of brother to humans Native American women are also at a high risk of sexual and physical abuse, recorded at three and a half times higher than the national average. This estimate is very low because 70 percent of abuse cases go unreported, often due to mistrust Native American women feel towards government and police Anthropologist W. Arens proposed in 1979 that there were no first-hand accounts of flesh eating among the Native Americans, and thus no solid proof for cannibalism. This controversial view has been refuted since, for there is indeed ample evidence in The Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents alone to prove Arens's thesis wrong

First published in 1727, Indian Converts, or Some account of the lives and dying speeches of a considerable number of the Christianized Indians of Martha's Vineyard was written by Experience Mayhew and provides insights into the lives and culture of four generations of Native Americans in colonial America. (Reed College Two Moon's account of the famed battle, which yielded Custer's last stand, makes clear that the Native Americans were fighting a defensive battle. He related the horrifying story of the great battle with stoicism and great dignity, suggesting that war between the Cheyenne, the Sioux, and the White man was an inevitable result of the Great. -Native American Removal- Directions-- Using the accounts from those that traveled on the trail; paraphrase or take direct quotes about what the journey was like for those that were forced to travel on th Read Scott's orders. Lt. L.B. Webster, who accompanied the Cherokee along part of the Trail of Tears, offered a first-hand account of the journey

Indian Wars of the West and frontier army life, 1862-1898 This resource provides first-hand accounts of wars with Native Americans throughout the west including several related to conflicts in California Now that you have read an account of a Cherokee Indian and this view of the Indian Removal, you will want to look into some primary source documents that reveal some first-hand views of the actual journey that Native Americans took on the Trail of Tears. Open the link below in a new tab Introduction: In this article - to help celebrate National Native American Heritage Month - Gena Philibert-Ortega explains how to use the Dawes Rolls for your Native American genealogy.Gena is a genealogist and author of the book From the Family Kitchen. My grandmother was a Cherokee Indian! Many researchers start their genealogy journey because they've heard a family story. First-Hand Accounts of Cherokee Culture and U.S. Political Encounters: Dr. Rowena McClinton Edits New Volumes of the Payne-Butrick Papers. The Newberry Library houses the well-known and frequently utilized 14-volume John Howard Payne Papers, also known as the Payne-Butrick Papers A selection of short primary-source accounts from a variety of sources, including newspaper reports, Congressional documents, government documents, and Indian tribal sources, highlighting conflicts and controversies and presenting the opposing views of Native and non-Native Americans

A Brief History Native American Boarding School

  1. Abstract: 45 first hand accounts of Native Americans in Marquette County as told by local residents and visitors of the city. Rankin, Ernest H. The Indians of Gitchi Gumee. Call Number: 970.3 R16 Abstract: History of Chippewa, subjects include: habitation, food, dress, education, children, religion, legends, and more
  2. For Native American Heritage Month (November), Library of Congress (LOC) highlights its collections. Celebrating Native American Heritage Month. Resources and items from the Library of Congress collections on Pinterest. Images of Indians of North America. View more than 17,000 pictorial records of native peoples made chiefly by European and.
  3. The Duke Collection of American Indian Oral History online provides access to typescripts of interviews (1967-1972) conducted with hundreds of Indians in Oklahoma regarding the histories and cultures of their respective nations and tribes. Related are accounts of Indian ceremonies, customs, social conditions, philosophies, and standards of living
  4. ent position in the colony. Winslow's account states: Our corn did prove well, and God be praised, we had a good increase of Indian.
  5. An overview of resources related to the history of Native American Education in Kansas. Books about the history of Native American education. This book is an important addition in the field of Indian educational studies because of its emphasis on interviews and first-hand accounts of experiences in the Indian boarding schools, particularly.
Westward Expansion & Manifest Destiny - YouTube

Native American History. Recommended Videos. Comment on this Story. comments powered by Disqus. Photo of the day Through the Fog Photo of the Day » Most Popular. Other Mammals, Not Dinosaurs. According to Viking accounts, one native raid was precipitated when a bull escaped from captivity in the Norse camp. Native warriors were terrified by the animal, the likes of which they had never seen, and attacked the settlement. Two Vikings were killed in the ensuing melee. Despite everything the land had to offer there, they would be. First-Hand Accounts -By Date. Letter of Luis de Quirós and Juan Baptista de Segura, 1570. This letter describes the settlement at Ajacàn and requests that Juan de Hinistrosa, the Royal Treasurer of Cuba, send a ship of grain to sustain the settlement. Letter of Juan Rogel to Francis Borgia, 1572 The stated purpose of this policy was to Kill the Indian, Save the Man.. Between 1869 and the 1960s, it's likely that hundreds of thousands of Native American children were removed from their homes and families and placed in boarding schools operated by the federal government and the churches. Though we don't know how many children. first-hand accounts, it is often to illustrate the savagery of Indian life in contrast with civilised white customs, such as the descriptions of Indian women as drudges, slaves or mere mules.8 Of course, the gender map could be modified to suit circumstance but it was usually to accommodat

If you are interested in real history, then this e-book is your fare, even if it is from the point of view of a European invader on the land of Native Americans. I found it fascinating and couldn't put it down until I read the gripping 566-page account. It also included more than 14 original illustrations that are priceless! Chet Dembec Early Encounters in North America. This collection documents the relationships among peoples in North America from 1534 to 1850. The collection focuses on personal accounts and provides unique perspectives from all of the protagonists, including traders, slaves, missionaries, explorers, soldiers, native peoples, and officials, both men and women Buffalo Hunt, 1846. F rancis Parkman came to the West in the summer of 1846 having just graduated from Harvard Law School. He was twenty-three years old. His objective was to visit an Indian village in order to experience Native American culture in its original habitat. Accompanied by a cousin, Parkman spent the summer roaming the plains.

Captured by the Indians: 15 Firsthand Accounts, 1750-1870

University of Arkansas at Little Rock | 2801 S. University Avenue | Little Rock, Arkansas 72204 All Rights Reserved | Credit So even first-hand accounts of first contact with inland Native Americans were not with the impressive cultures that had recently ruled the land, not with the splendor and wonder of intelligent cultures in full bloom, but with the last remnants of a catastrophe on a scale we can hardly imagine

First Hand Accounts - The Trail Of Tear

Columbus reports on his first voyage, 1493 | On August 3, 1492, Columbus set sail from Spain to find an all-water route to Asia. On October 12, more than two months later, Columbus landed on an island in the Bahamas that he called San Salvador; the natives called it Guanahani. | On August 3, 1492, Columbus set sail from Spain to find an all-water route to Asia The Heartbeat of Wounded Knee: Native America from 1890 to the Present Treuer, David. (2019). Penguin Publishing Group. As is so often seen in culture, education, and politics, American history tends to neglect the stories of Native America past the Wounded Knee Massacre of 1890. Dr George Washington's first recorded encounter with Native Americans occurred while on a surveying trip in 1748 when he was 16 years old. Noting in his journal on March 23, at about 2:00 pm: we were agreeably surpris'd at the sight of thirty odd Indians coming from War. During the French and Indian War, Washington spent the majority of his army. While Native Americans are contemporary peoples, many still practice traditions that have been passed down for generations. Discourage students from making up Native American legends, ceremonies, names, or dances. Instead, have them research first-hand accounts of these traditions. Do the books you read present Native perspectives Col. Richard H. Pratt founded the first of the off-reservation Native American boarding schools based on the philosophy that, according to a speech he made in 1892, all the Indian there is in the.

Native Americans First View Whites From The Shore

Primary Sources - Native American Studies Research Guide

Like most Native American peoples, our family's story is touched by the legacy of boarding schools, institutions created to destroy and vilify Native culture, language, family, and spirituality. I have read many books on Native American Legends and stories of the capabilities of the tribal medicine men, but this is the first book I have read that presents first hand accounts written by the Europeans who first came in contact with the different origional Nations of North America

American Journeys: Eyewitness Accounts of Early American

  1. Native Americans and Scalping and Torture The trophy prized above all others by American Indians was the scalp. Those made in later days by Tortured by the Apache Indians: A First-Hand Account. Tortured by the Apache Indians: A First-Hand Account The Torture
  2. ate Them: Written Accounts of the Murder, Rape, and Slavery of Native Americans. During the California Gold Rush, 1848-1868. Edited by Clifford E. Trafzer and Joel R. Hyer. Published in 1999. With its mild climate, its vast and fertile interior valleys, and an abundance of game, the region we now know as California once.
  3. Attended by over 12,000 Native American children from more than 140 tribes between 1879 and 1918, the school was the model for nearly 150 Indian schools. Its founder was U.S. Army officer Richard Henry Pratt, who commanded a unit of African American Buffalo Soldiers and Indian scouts in Oklahoma and witnessed the Bureau of Indian Affair's.
  4. understanding of Native American history you might consult these books. Anderson, K. (2005). Tending the wild : Native American knowledge and the management of California's natural resources. Berkeley: University of California Press. This book's careful documentation of ongoing Native Californian land management practice
  5. Unmediated accounts by Native American students or their families were rarely published. By the 1920s, off-reservation government boarding schools faced increasing criticism for questionable teaching practices, substandard living conditions, and poor medical care, and Native American education soon entered a new era
  6. The article starts near the top of page 261 and continues on the succeeding two pages; use Next Page and Previous Page to navigate as desired. (NOTE: This account, taken verbatim from the December 20, 1773, article in the Boston Evening Post, is the lengthiest and most difficult of all the first-hand accounts cited here
  7. ate Native American mascots

Religion and Healing in Native America Pathways for Renewal. by Suzanne J. Crawford O'Brien, ed. Through first-hand accounts, personal experience, and narrative analysis, the authors provide readers with a rare glimpse into the religious and healing practices of Native Americans Demant said if a Native American woman was assaulted and walked into a Native American-run clinic to get a rape kit, she would be turned down, making her case going to trial very difficult Here within is a collection of fifty-seven accounts of first-hand narratives of people captured by Indians in colonial times and lived to tell their story of the life, customs, kindness, and cruelties of Native Americans. Various torture methods by different tribes are described in graphic detail by people that witnessed these horrible atrocities

first hand accounts of the culture and what life was like for Italians looking to become more American. Lastly, the inclusion of health, education, and employment for Italians in America really made this source elite. 6. Similar to the previous book, The Italian in America , with so many first hand accounts, it's difficult to pinpoint when th Giants in the Ozarks: No Evidence for 7, 8, or 10-Foot Tall Native Americans Exists. Stories of giants found in prehistoric North America are common, and the Ozarks has its own version of this myth. There are accounts and newspaper stories of prehistoric giants being unearthed in various places in the Ozarks

First-Hand Accounts on Virtual Jamestown ; Virginia's Early Relations with Native Americans (good overview with links to documents on this subject) on American Memory. Students could examine many of the other documents on Virtual Jamestown to study other aspects of the colony and its development He lived amongst Indians all his life, hunted like them and spoke their languages like a native. Yet, he grew to hate them with great intensity. A seat-of-the-pants, plainly written account of a great American. The entire book in two editions The 's First Hand Accounts 1514 Words | 7 Pages. Yet, these accounts must be observed within the context in which they were recorded. Often, these documents were recorded by missionaries focused on converting the native population to Christianity and so were bias towards their cause. Take, for example, the accounts of Jesuit Jean de Brébeu

The Carlisle Indian Industrial School opened in 1879 in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, by Lieutenant Richard Henry Pratt with 136 Native American Children. 6 However, at the turn of the decade, the federal government acknowledged assimilation practices as Indian Policy. Carlisle then became approved as a role model for other off-reservation schools. Native Americans in the American Revolution: How the War Divided, Devastated, and Transformed the Early American Indian World fills that gap in the literature, provides full coverage of the Revolution's effects on Native Americans, and details how Native Americans were critical to the Revolution's outbreak, its progress, and its conclusion American history is no exception, and those studying it will benefit from reading these first-hand native accounts. References, Textbooks, and General Overviews Perhaps the most comprehensive and authoritative reference for Native American history is the Handbook of North American Indian series published by the Smithsonian Institution under the. Contact Information. Department of Agriculture, Conservation & Forestry 22 State House Station 18 Elkins Lane Augusta, ME 04333 Phone: (207) 287-320 A first-hand account of the Indian wars. Written by George Ellison. Wednesday, February 23, 2011. I spent some time last week reading about the 18th-century Indian wars in Western North Carolina. These were the Cherokee battles with the British along the Little Tennessee and Tuckaseigee rivers in 1760 and 1761, as well as the Rutherford.

American Indian's History and Photographs: Historic photos

Early Accounts of Indians in the California Gold Rush

George Catlin (July 26, 1796 - December 23, 1872) Was an American painter, author, and traveler who specialized in portraits of Native Americans in the Old West. Travelling to the American West five times during the 1830s, Catlin was the. Some Native American tribes fought back, Sipe, C. Hale, The Indian wars of Pennsylvania: An account of the Indian events, in Pennsylvania, of the French and Indian War, Pontiac's War, Lord Dunmore's War, the Revolutionary War and the Indian Uprising from 1789 to 1795

The Shocking Savagery of America's Early History History

  1. Stories of the Trail of Tears. In the 1830s the United States government forcibly removed the southeastern Native Americans from their homelands and relocated them on lands in Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma). This tragic event is referred to as the Trail of Tears. Over 10,000 Native Americans died during removal or soon upon arrival in.
  2. At age thirteen, Mary's life changed forever. From that day until her death 78 years later she never left the Indian culture. Mary's story of her capture and life among the Seneca was first published in 1824. On a morning in March 1758, Mary, her mother and a friend were preparing breakfast when they were startled by the sound of gunfire
  3. Personal narratives from the Civil War are a rich resources for understanding the wide range of experiences and viewpoints of Americans during the war. These firsthand accounts offer insight into the motivations of individuals fighting for the Union and the Confederacy, as well as the hardships faced by family members on the homefront
  4. One of the things people often ask about is what life was like on the California missions, especially Indian life.Some of the most important accounts of native life at the California missions come from the Interrogatorio (Questionnaire) that the Spanish Government sent to the priests of the California missions in 1813

Survivors of Indian boarding schools tell their stories WKA

Slavery Nearly Universal Among 'Native American' Indian Tribes Prior to White Settlement. Captivity narratives contain a wealth of first-hand eyewitness accounts of what it was like for White colonists to interact with these noble savages — E. F. Abbott's captivity narrative of Mary Jemison is especially enlightening Contemporary Native Spirituality In 1980, George Horse Capture (A'ani/Gros Ventre) published The Seven Visions of Bull Lodge narrated by the daughter of Bull Lodge in 1941 and only recently recovered. This is a remarkable first hand native account of vision quest rites and the inner life of a renown native healer and pipe keeper

So much can be said about this school, it was the first Native American boarding school to op-erate. Hundreds of children died at Carlisle Indian School. Most from disease (tuberculosis, pneumonia, smallpox), others died while attempting to escape from the school or from physical, emotional and sexual abuse or malnutrition a culture of fear associated with mutilation and torture at the hands of Native American warriors. This study investigates the suicide question through an analysis of gunshot trauma and mutilation of osteological specimens and first hand historical accounts of suicide on the battlefield. The use of historical and forensic methods were integrated t

A genre of American literature popular from the 16th to the 19th century was the Indigenous captivity narrative, or Indian captivity narrative. These stories gave an account of a woman who was kidnapped and held captive by Indigenous people, told from her perspective. In most cases, the women taken captive are White women of European descent Narrative description of Early Native American NDEs. Experience Description. Contributed by Lee Miller. Hariot, who did the recording, first relayed a story told of a man of the Secotan nation (an Indian nation in Hyde and Dare Counties, North Carolina, and on the Outer Banks) who had died and been buried a few years before the Englishmen came to their country (around 1582.) 'The next day.

First Encounters: Early European Accounts of Native

  1. All Native Americans stemmed from a single group that later diversified into two branches. T he split between Siberians and Native Americans may have occurred about 23,000 years ago—the chronology is approximate. Genetic information from modern populations as well as from a handful of ancient skeletons confirms that all Native Americans.
  2. 500 Nations is an eight-part documentary on the Native Americans of North and Central America. It documents from pre-Columbian to the end of the 19th century. Much of the information comes from text, eyewitnesses, pictorials, and computer graphics. The series was hosted by Kevin Costner, narrated by Gregory Harrison, and directed by Jack Leustig
  3. ican monk and historian who wrote extensively about the condition of Indigenous peoples under the control of the Spanish. Later colonizing powers, such as the English, would use de Las Casas's accusations and assertions as evidence.
  4. My story is my own, and just as there are thousands of Native American college students, there are thousands of different experiences. 1. People believe you are extinct. I was lucky to be able to go to two universities that are right in the middle of Indigenous territory, so as institutions, they acknowledged that Native Americans exist
  5. The would-be documentarian Dene Oxendene is awarded a grant to film first-hand accounts of the Native American experience. Orvil Red Feather, who is attending the powwow, dresses up in too.
  6. Autobiographies and first hand accounts from former boarding school pupils are used in order gain perspective on the traumas and eradicate attempts from the government run boarding schools. Military records will provide insight into the need and use of native languages for the ambition of the war
  7. Personal Accounts. The personal accounts of former slaves were incredibly important in strengthening the case for abolition, as they brought to light the harsh realities of the system of transatlantic enslavement. They not only reflect, on an individual and personalised level, general patterns of the transatlantic slave trade and slavery, but.
American Indian's History and Photographs: The Life and

Eyewitness to War: A Confederate Soldier's Account of the

  1. For most of the 1600s & 1700s, few first-hand images of Native Americans are known to have been created with little or no contemporary documentation. European publishers often used illustrations imagined by European artists, who had never sailed across the Atlantic. These illustators were hired to illustrate written accounts of events in the.
  2. Native Americans. Heroes and Leaders; Indian Wars; About 1860 Catherine, the oldest girl, wrote a first-hand account of their journey across the plains and their life with the Whitmans. Today it is regarded as one of the most authentic accounts of the American westward migration
  3. Following the 1848 American invasion, Native Californian people were enslaved in the new state from statehood in 1850 to 1867. Slavery required the posting of a bond by the enslaver, and enslavement occurred through raids and four months' servitude, imposed as a punishment for Native American vagrancy
  4. The Americans of 1776 section discusses something of the lifestyles and contributions of Native Americans, English settlers, African Americans, and European settlers from outside England, as well as presenting a persepective on Protestants, Catholics, and Jews in America. There are also multiple first hand accounts of the following battles.
  5. Did you know that a recent report found that 87% of state history standards make no mention of Native American history after 1900? This is a problem. Native American history is American history. I've found that some textbooks will simply have one sidebar with a quick gloss over of the assimilation of Native Americans, yet there is so much to this history that we can't overlook
  6. the name given to the forced removal of the Native Americans to the Indian Territory Primary Source First hand account of an event; speech, diary, official record
  7. The Truth About Christopher Columbus. In fourteen hundred and ninety two, Columbus sailed the ocean blue. Today, Christopher Columbus is celebrated as a mythical hero by some - complete with songs, poems, and fictional tales about his great adventure across the Atlantic to explore the majestic land that would eventually be known as the.

Native American schools were often staffed with husband-and-wife teachers who acted as surrogate parents, enticing children away from their biological families and toward a model of Anglo-American domesticity. DMNS BR61-180. 5 of 11 Photos. 5. Boys were schooled in farming, carpentry, and metalworking. This industrial training was geared less. Indian New England 1524-1674: A Compendium of Eyewitness Accounts of Native American Life (Heritage of New England Series) by Ronald Dale Karr, Emilie Reneé Karr, Jeannine Marie Karr. Click here for the lowest price! Paperback, 9780942147070, 094214707

Americans Native American Voices Student will be given a handout with multiple first-hand accounts of life in pre-colonial America from the perspective of natives. They will actively read the accounts using a close reading strategy. They will then work with a partner to create a lotus diagram depicting viability and diversity of native cultures. Native Americans Native American Voices Student will be given a handout with multiple first-hand accounts of life in pre-colonial America from the perspective of natives. They will actively read the accounts using a close reading strategy. They will then work with a partner to create a lotus diagram depicting viability and diversity o

William Kiser uses first-hand accounts to present the conflicts between the US and the various Apache (Mescalero, Mimbres, and Mogollon) tribes, and exposes the use of unauthorized tactics of total warfare. This is, of course, the beginning of a long struggle that continued until the defeat of Indian heroes such as Geronimo and Cochise In cases where Native American villages and fields were found empty by settlers, this period of abandonment was often very short, likely less than a generation in many cases. A U.S. Forest Service report lists accounts from the 1670s to the 1770s that describe fields only recently gone fallow and were covered by white clover, broom grass. Our current understanding suggests Native Americans have called the area that was to become Yellowstone National Park home for over 10,000 years. Archeologists have only recently begun to. 16C & 17C Europeans Depict Native Americans. Indigenous People from New England, New York, New Jersey, Delaware, & Pennsylvnia from John Ogilby's (1600-1676) book of 1671. For most of the 1600s & 1700s, few first-hand images of Native Americans are known to have been created with little or no contemporary documentation The narrative may be considered as one of the earliest first-hand accounts of how the Native Americans actually treated the English, whom it considered as threats to their domains. As implied by the narrative, the colonists believed that it was their destiny to civilize and Christianize the pagans

Rare Exclusive Interview with Havasupai Native AmericanAmerican Indian's History and Photographs: Historic PhotosAmerican Indian's History and Photographs: MinnesotaAmerican Indian's History and Photographs: Native American

Primary Source Publications lists cataloged holdings with first-hand accounts or data. Secondary Source Publications outlines histories of Native Americans, lexigraphic studies, and other disciplinary approaches to the study of Native Americans It is estimated that between 80% and 95% of the Native American population died within the first 100-150 years of European contact with the Americas. Those settlers that survived, together with new arrivals, began to cultivate the land, growing crops such as tobacco. As more settlers arrived, more Native American land was taken, and the Native. Jul 13, 2016 - Explore Joanna Stinnett's board Sioux, followed by 1088 people on Pinterest. See more ideas about native american history, native american indians, native american peoples Florida Web Sites: Native Americans. Many of the following Web sites will be of interest to Florida educators. Please be aware that links may change at any time, and that neither the Florida Center for Instructional Technology nor the Florida Department of Education is responsible for the content of external Web sites