By the time of his internment in 1940 my grandfather had been in Scotland for 20 years. He was one of about 5500 ?migr?s from the Italian peninsula living and working in Scotland. It would be wrong, however, to label this an Italian community During the Second World War (1939 - 1945) a number of internment camps for civilians from enemy countries were established on the Isle of Man. These were based at Peveril Camp, Peel (on the west coast of the island) and Mooragh Camp, Ramsey (on the NE coast of the island)
Italians living in Britain were interned. This included 4,000 people with less than twenty years' residence in Britain. Amongst those interned were Mussolini's left-wing opponents who had fled to Britain after being involved in anti-fascist activities in Italy. The Italians were held in various camps all over Britain During World War 2, Southern Rhodesia interned over 12,000 German, Austrian and Italian 'enemy aliens'. In addition, they also hosted Polish and Persian refugees. The internees came in two waves: first wave were Camps No.1 & No.2, and second wave were the other camps The internment of Italian Americans refers to the government's internment of Italian nationals in the United States during World War II.As was customary after Italy and the US were at war, they were classified as enemy aliens and some were detained by the Department of Justice under the Alien and Sedition Act.But in practice, the US applied detention only to Italian nationals, not to US.
The camps where the PoWs were imprisoned have largely (but not all) disappeared. At one time hundreds of them were spread across the UK. The best known was Island Farm in Wales - scene of a 'great.. There were several internment camps on the island. Many of the Italian men were sent to a camp on the seafront at Douglas, housed behind barbed wire in camps made up of requisitioned hotels and boarding houses. The Palace Camp took its name from The Palace Hotel, which was the biggest of these hotels Huyton's internment camp became home for up to 5,000 innocent German, Austrian and Italian civilians in 1940-1941, mainly for being citizens of Britain's enemies There was an Italian PoW camp near me, in Lincolnshire the site was flattened some time last year to make way for a new housing development (the water tower and a few of the huts were still.. This is a list of internment and concentration camps, organized by country.In general, a camp or group of camps is designated to the country whose government was responsible for the establishment and/or operation of the camp regardless of the camp's location, but this principle can be, or it can appear to be, departed from in such cases as where a country's borders or name has changed or it.
In addition to the forced removal of Japanese Americans for purposes of confinement in War Relocation Authority (WRA) camps, the Justice Department oversaw the internment of more than thirty-one thousand civilians during the Second World War. This total included approximately 11,500 people of German ancestry and three thousand people of Italian ancestry, many of whom were United States citizens On 13th July 1940 the British government opened Hutchinson, an internment camp on the Isle of Man for so-called 'enemy aliens' - German, Austrian and Italian passport holders living in Britain at the time. In the paranoia of war these men, many of whom came to Britain as refugees from Nazi oppression, were now considered to be potential. Justin Trudeau has made a formal apology for the internment of Italian Canadians during the second world war, acknowledging that hundreds of people were denied due legal process. After Italy. . The Colonel's Cabin and one guard tower are all that stay of the Kanaskis Internment and POW camp, the place some Italians have been housed early in WW2
Introduction. Although this topic falls outside of my usual interest in 19 th Century or earlier, Manx affairs, I have included it as a possible help for those of non-Manx descent.. The Isle of Man was used as a base for Alien Civilian Internment camps in both WWI (1914-18) and again in WWII (1939-45); for WWI a very large camp (effectively a small, self-contained, township) was established at. Prince Amedeo, Duke of Aosta, who lay claim to defunct Italian throne, has died. Duke was sent to an internment camp as an infant and was educated in England. He was a childhood friend of the Duke. On June 10, 1940, when Italy declared battle on the UK, Canada enacted the Struggle Measures Act and rounded up tons of of Italian Canadians. The Colonel's Cabin and one guard tower are all that stay of the Kanaskis Internment and POW camp, the place some Italians have been housed early in WW2 Sep 16, 2016 - Explore Joanne Cutright's board Italian internment WW11 on Pinterest. See more ideas about internment, italian, internment camp Apr 23, 2017 - Explore Pamela Lee's board United States: German/Italian Internment Camps on Pinterest. See more ideas about internment camp, internment, pow camp
. Food prepared at Kirtland and brought in. Keeping water fresh was a problem and prisoners were doubled up in barracks. The second crisis to occur was the rebellion by the Tule Lake prisoners. They shaved their heads like Japanese soldiers, painted Japanese. The base camps were located in Alva, Fort Reno, Fort Sill, the Madill Provisional Internment Camp headquarters, McAlester and Camp Gruber. Corbett said that the base camp in Alva was specifically unique because it was used as the maximum security camp - housing around 5,000 Nazi Party members
This book—which is based on vast archival research and on a variety of primary sources—has filled a gap in Italy's historiography on Fascism, and in European and world history about concentration camps in our contemporary world. It provides, for the first time, a survey of the different types of internment practiced by Fascist Italy during the war and a historical map of its. security concerns, the import of Italian prisoners to the United Kingdom was being actively discussed early in 1941 to alleviate a grievous shortage of labour on the home front. The first contingents of a planned 25,000 arrived on British soil in July of that year to be held in purpose-built camps Internment Camps for Italians in WW1 and WW2. My Italian great-grandfather, Giulio Del-Rivo, who was brought to England from Genova and put in a Catholic School for boys in Ramsgate in 1882 as a 10-year-old boy - by an Italian monk, apparently - became an electrical engineer and worked initially for a fellow Italian (but Liverpool-born. The evident weight of source material available on the camp at Knockaloe might make such an investigation possible in the case of German civilian internment experiences in Britain. Furthermore, comparing findings trans-nationally, exploring for example the situation of parallel groups in Britain and Germany, offers further understanding During World War II, the United States established many prisoner of war (POW) camps on its soil for the first time since the Civil War. By 1943, Arkansas had received the first of 23,000 German and Italian prisoners of war, who would live and work at military installations and branch camps throughout the state. The presence of POW camps in the United States was due in part to a British request.
The Internment Camps of Germans in America During WW2. Share on facebook Tweet on twitter. War History Online: Internment of Japanese Americans during the Second World War is widely known and well documented. However, less is known about the thousands of ethnic Germans who were also detained, as well as smaller numbers of Italians and. Around 20 per cent of all Italians living in Australia were interned. At the peak of the war, Australia held more than 12,000 people in internment camps. Over the course of the war, internees included: 7000 Australian residents, including 1500 British nationals. 8000 people from overseas Enemies Within. Book Description: Bringing together national and international perspectives on Italian and other wartime internees, the essays in this book assess the differing interpretations offered of Italian internment in Canada, the UK, the USA, and Australia during WWII. eISBN: 978-1-4426-7446-2. Subjects: History Trinidad - WWII German/Italian camp being renovated. Granada - Prowers County - WWII Japanese internment camp Ft. Carson - Along route 115 near Canon City; CONNECTICUT, DELAWARE No data available. FLORIDA. Avon Park - Air Force gunnery range, Avon Park has an on-base correctional facility which was a former WWII detention camp
An immediate round up began of Italians not possessing British nationality and Agostino De Marco, like many other Italians, was sent to the Palace internment Camp on the Isle of Man. In some cities, where there were large Italian communities, the arrests were carried out with some brutality and angry mobs attacked Italian homes and businesses Trinidad - WWII German/Italian camp being renovated. Granada - Prowers County - WWII Japanese internment camp Ft. Carson - Along route 115 near Canon City. CONNECTICUT, DELAWARE No data available. FLORIDA Avon Park - Air Force gunnery range, Avon Park has an on-base correctional facility which was a former WWII detention camp
1 University of Arizona The Department of French & Italian Dr. Kara Tableman email@example.com THE HOLOCAUST IN FRANCE AND ITALY FREN ITAL 150B1: Online Course Summer 1 June 8 to July 9, 2020 2 The Holocaust in France and Italy FREN ITAL 150B1: Online Course Summer 1: June 8 to July 9, 2020 Instructor: Dr. Kara Tableman Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Contact Phone: 480-430-4572. Vas du das Krieg est uber - For You the War is over. German and Italian camps! Over 200,000 soldiers of the British armed forces were captured during the Second World War and placed in one of the different types of prisoner of war camps run by the Germans until 1945 and Italians until late 1943, sometimes even both!. We have German AND Italian camp listings in our fully searchable databases Under the War Measures Act and DOCR (Defence of Canada Regulations) 31,000 Italian Canadians were fingerprinted and required to report to the RCMP on a regular basis. 610 Italians were taken from their families and sent to remote internment camps in Ontario, Quebec, Alberta and New Brunswick Prime Minister Justin Trudeau on Thursday made a formal apology for the internment of Italian-Canadians during the Second World War.. After Italy declared war against Canada in 1940, Canada.
Civilian Internment Camps in Japan Source for below material is from Enemy Alien Internment by Mayumi Komiya (Tokyo: Yoshikawa Kobun Kan, 2009). Dec. 1941 data compiled from Gaiji Geppo (Foreign Affairs Monthly Report), December 1941 issue, Tokyo, Japan.; As of December 1941, there were 2,138 civilians of Allied nations in Japan -- 1,044 Americans, 690 British, 188 Canadians, 109 Dutch, 41. internment meaning: 1. the act of putting someone in prison for political or military reasons, especially during a war. Learn more Stanhill / Knuzden WW2 POW Camp. Lancashire had its fair share of POW and Internment Camps, some in the most unlikely places. The Internment Camps were a dark part of the war, whose story is rarely told (see more details elsewhere on this site). Thousands of Italian and German POWs and Internees passed through Lancashire during the war and. Laying bare Mussolini's murderous regime. Ferramonti concentration camp, now a museum. Tarsia, Italy, 2019. One spring day in 1937, two Italian men were found murdered on a country road in Normandy; their carotid arteries had been severed. Carlo Rosselli and his younger brother Nello had fled to France from Fascist Italy
As many Italian internees were released during 1943 it was decided to close No 9 Compound and transfer the remaining Italians to No 14D Compound in the Loveday Internment Camp Group. This photograph shows internees passing through the compound gates carrying their personal belongings including birds in cages. Barmera, South Australia. 1943-12-31 Stefano Paolini's book 'Missing Presumed Drowned' on Italian Internment and the Arandora Star,which has a chapter on Warth (Wharf) Mill, is available on the link (Left) from Amazon.co.uk Tom Conti's programme for the BBC about Internment camps can be heard HER Memories of Number 1 Internment Camp Harare. June 10, 1940 - onward. Mr. Virgilio Vincenzo Garlzlo. This camp was for German and Italian families. When Italy joined Germany in the war against England, we were arrested and put in camp with the Germans. I was only 12 years old at the time
and Italian internees as well as Polish and Iraqi reftigees during the Second World War. This study looks at the historical background to the establishment of camps for internees and renigees in the colony. The internees came in two main waves, first as many Axis nationals were interned in British Africa The UK boarded them onto boats with German POWs and shipped them to internment camps in Canada or Australia. Jim landed in a New Brunswick camp, where his main job was cutting wood. He didn't mind the work and could borrow books from the McGill University lending library The three largest internment camps were at Wharf Mills (Bury), Huyton (Liverpool) and on the Isle of Man. Others were sent to the prisons at Brixton and Holloway and to a camps at Kempton Park Racecourse. At Brixton several Jewish refugees were beaten up by interned members of the British Union of Fascists Douglas Camp. This page looks at the development of the Douglas camp. Cunningham's Holiday Camp was requisitioned as a Civilian Alien Internment Camp - B. E. Sargeaunt (Government Secretary) states:. A deputation from the Civilian Internment Camps Committee, consisting of Sir William Byrne and Mr. Montefiore, came to the Isle of Man in September, 1914, to ascertain from the Manx Government. Internment is the forcible confinement or detention of a person during wartime. Large-scale internment operations were carried out by the Canadian government during the First World War and the Second World War.In both cases, the War Measures Act was invoked. This gave the government the authority to deny people's civil liberties, notably habeas corpus (the right to a fair trial before.
Canada interned more than 600 people with Italian heritage - sometimes for months or years - and declared about 31,000 of them enemy aliens after Italian dictator Benito Mussolini entered the war on the side of Nazi Germany in 1940. The men were housed in camps in Petawawa and Kingston, Ontario, Fredericton, NB, and Kananaskis, Alta Greco is the incumbent head of the association and the promoter of a publication entitled Gli Italiani d'Egitto Nella Seconda Guerra Mondiale which tells the story of Italian internment in Egypt during the war. The laying of the plaque in what used to be an internment camp was a long-standing objective for our association says Greco
It was easy to single out Japanese-Americans. They looked different from white Americans, and they had answered a census question about their ethnicity that made it easy to find them from census records. It was not easy to round up Italian-America.. Canadians of Italian origin find justice in apology for internment during WW2. The federal election hasn't started yet — but the parties are in full campaign mode. The death toll in the Surfside. The 'bittersweet' legacy of Canada's wartime Jewish and Italian internment camps. In 1940, a Jewish student in the United Kingdom named Edgar Lion was sent to Canada against his will on a.
I am researching Prisoner of War Camps in Surrey and have so far compiled the following list, mainly from the Prisoner of War Information Bureau: List of Places of Interment, published in 1919; but, with a few other places added from other sources found at the National Archives. Is it comprehensi.. OTTAWA — Prime Minister Justin Trudeau formally apologized on Thursday for the internment of Canadians of Italian descent during the Second World War, saying the community has carried the weight. The Internment of Italian Enemy Aliens When Italy Entered The War. When the dreadful news arrived that Mussolini had declared war on Britain and the Allies Winston Churchill instructed the Home Secretary of the time, Sir John Anderson, to arrest many Italian adult males who were now designated as being Enemy Aliens During World War II, many Anglo-Italians who had come to the UK as economic migrants, were interned as 'enemy aliens' - and some deported .. There was also a Prisoner of War camp.
I am certainly aware of Japanese-americans being detained in Internment camps, after the attack on Pearl Harbor , and subsequent declaration of war on United States , by the empire of Japan.About 110,000+ Japanese-American residents of the pacific coast were , forced into relocating into areas designated as War Relocation Camps It's a stretch of highway lined with postcard good views and guarantees of escape and a way of freedom. However 80 years in the past, sitting below t
Table 2: Major Internment Camps in Britain, 1914-19. While a small number of locations housed a significant proportion of the enemy army, naval and air force personnel during the war, a large number of camps evolved for such military prisoners during the course of the conflict, especially in 1918 and 1919, as the number of internees grew . Which two arguments did the Supreme Court use to uphold the constitutionality of Korematsu's internment? Due to the war, there was not enough time to hold trials or hearings before sending people to internment camps. The military had a legitimate need to protect against espionage and sabotage Germans/Italians interned in UK during WW2. There is a big ol' house nearby in our village which housed Italian POWs. The house is supposedly haunted. As a matter of interest, going back much further than WW2, French POWs were used to construct the Aldenham reservoir in Hertfordshire in the 1790s The final camp on the Douglas Promenade was the Metropole Camp (the Metropole Mansions), which opened in July 1940. It was one of the smaller camps, only holding about 750 internees, the majority of whom were Italians (including the crews of several Italian merchant ships which were still in British ports or territorial waters when Italy joined the Axis powers in June 1940)
3.2 PoW camps and treatment of prisoners, 1939-1945. lists of PoW camps and documentation on the employment of prisoners, principally Italian, in WO 199/404-409 (individuals tend not to be named) inspection reports on PoW camps in FO 916; files on individual POW camps in the United Kingdom in FO 93 Farnham Camp re-opened as an internment camp on April 18, 1942 with the arrival of 597 enemy merchant seamen. Prisoners left for the UK on May 22 1946 and the camp closed on June 17, 1946. Heatfield, England, to internee at Camp L (Cove Fields, Que
. The result was the internment of approximately 28,000 'enemy aliens' (most of whom were Jewish refugees). One of those interned was the German refugee Gerhard Oertel. Eden was one of 487 PoW camps hastily thrown up across Britain to house more than 400,000 incoming prisoners during the Second World War. The war had created a crippling labour shortage on the home front. Britain's farms were crying out for more manpower, and the strong young men of the Italian army more than fitted the bill The untold story of Britain's POW camps Immigration is a huge issue in Britain but during WWII almost half a million enemy POWs became part of local communitie
internment camp Rome: Associazione Culturale Foundation 1991. Memoirs of an Italian Catholic Priest who was interned in the Metropole camp:. (See pp. 43-62) with internee photographs. Library ref: B.115/ROS Underhill, Arthur C- A Policemen's Lot Douglas: Manx Experience 1993 ISBN 1-873 1 20-11-7 Chapter 3. Alien Internment camps Warth Mills Internment Camp, Bury. Photographed at dawn, these are the original cotton mill buildings in the middle of what is now Warth Business Park on Radcliffe Road in Bury. Warth Mills as a Prisoner of War camp is described here. When I was at school (Derby High School) in Bury there was a paint factory next door called MacPhersons
Archives 1914-1918: during the First World War, 10 million people, servicemen and civilians, were captured and sent to prisoner-of-war and Internment camps. The Belligerent Countries sent lists of prisoners of various nationalities to the ICRC. The ICRC set up alphabetical indexes. You can use them to search for a person Myers, A. and Moshenska, G., (eds.) (2011) Archaeologies of Internment, Springer, USA Nerenberg, E. V., (2001) Prison Terms: Representing Confinement during and after Italian Fascism, Toronto. Trudeau apologizes to Italian-Canadians put in internment camps during WWII Hundreds put in camps after Italy became ally of Germany in 1940 2021-05-27 19:23:1 This article is the third in a four part series about Civilian Internment on the Isle of Man during the Second World War. Hutchinson Camp. Just off the Douglas Promenade is Hutchinson Camp now probably the most well-known of the Manx internment Camps.It opened in June 1940 and held 1,100 internees in boarding houses on one side of Broadway and the adjacent Hutchinson Square
Isle of Man Prison Camps. Many jews and others considered 'undesirable' by the Nazi government were able to escape to Britain, but at the outbreak of war in September 1939 the British government, worried by the possibility of enemy spies infiltrating, rounded up hundreds of families of German origin and sent them by boat to the Isle of Man. Italian prisoners of war from Egypt arrive in Hay 28 th May 1941. Antonio Ciancio was in this group. They were accommodated in Camp 7 and Camp 8. The next major development was the commencement of the River Farm in April 1942. I have used a 1962 aerial photo to highlight the positions of the camps and River Farm The internment of enemy aliens in the First World War was a global phenomenon. Camps holding civilian as well as military prisoners could be found on every continent, including in nation-states and empires that had relatively liberal immigration policies before the war. This article focuses on three of the best-known examples: Britain, Germany and the United States The Italian parliament sent a clear message, commented Formentini, who is the vice president of the Foreign and European Affairs Committee of the Italian House of Representatives and has been a major force behind the resolution. Regarding human rights, Italy, which is an integral part of the West, never retreats, he said
During the war hundreds of civilian camps were operating in Germany, France, Holland, Switzerland, Ireland, UK, US, Australia, South America and even in British Palestine: Some camp locations where at Atlit, Jaffa, Bethlehem, Haifa and Bat Yam. Internment of Japanese Americans. Internment of German Americans. Internment of Italian American Map of major displaced persons camps in Germany, Italy, Austria and Yugoslavia, 1946. (Wyman 1998) 1944 (6 June).Invasion of Normandy; first camps are established as Allies sweep across Franc There were three internment camps created at Hay NSW, they became known as Camps 6, 7 and 8 in the national numbering of internment camps. On the 6th September 1940, approximately 2000 of the mainly German and Austrian Jew ish refugees who had been sent from the UK aboard the infamous HMT Dunera arrived at Hay. Initially only Camp British Concentration Camps, A Brief History, 1900-75, by Simon Webb (Pen & Sword, £16.58) is available on Amazon. UK. Communal outrage over 'insulting and absurd' attacks on Lord Austin
About the Topaz Museum. JAPANESE AMERICAN. WWII INTERNMENT CAMP. 55 West Main, Delta, UT. (435) 864-2514. The internment of Americans of Japanese ancestry during WWII was one of the worst violations of civil rights against citizens in the history of the United States. The government and the US Army, falsely citing military necessity. During the Second World War (1939 - 1945) a number of internment camps for civilians from enemy countries were established on the Isle of Man. These were based at Peveril Camp, Peel (on the west coast of the island) and Mooragh Camp, Ramsey (on the NE coast of the island). Some civilians lived in the pre-war guest houses at Douglas and other.
The plan would be to lock them up in internment camps if the situation worsens in the UK. Currently, the police can hold you for up to 24 hours before they have to charge you with a crime or. During World War II, thousands of Italian Americans as well as thousands of Italian Canadians were put in internment camps on American and Canadian soil, along with Japanese Americans, German Americans, and ethnic Germans from Latin America. Thousands more were placed under surveillance or had their property repossessed by the government Personal use for non-commercial research and private study and other uses under the UK's exceptions to copyright and those exceptions to copyright in place where the user is located. LIEBENAU INTERNMENT CAMP FOR WOMEN AND CHILDREN, NEAR KONSTANZ, GERMANY, 1941 - 1945. Photographs The word 'camp' is often used generically but specifically the terms were camps, control hostels and control centres: without guard. In Queensland the Prisoner of War and Internment Camp at Gaythorne was the administrative authority for all Italian POWs in the state. Gaythorne PW & I Camp, located at Gaythorne, Brisbane had a capacity of 1800
Internment in Switzerland During World War One is my second book relating to Swiss history. My first, Healthy Living in the Alps, was about the search for a cure from TB and the subsequent development of winter sports before 1914.Many histories end at this date while others begin after 1918, leaving a wartime gap. It was this historical lacuna that aroused my curiosity. During the 1900s. Hundreds put in camps after Italy became ally of Germany in 1940. Prime Minister Justin Trudeau delivered a formal apology on Thursday for the internment of Italian Canadians during World War !!. Speaking in the House of Commons, Trudeau included in his apology the families of prisoners and the Italian Canadian community for pain and hardship. Find many great new & used options and get the best deals for Switzerland WWII Internee Camp Radelfingen Italian Prisoner Cover 53910 at the best online prices at eBay! Free shipping for many products The Japanese Internment camps were a way for our government to make us feel safe during World War 2. The reason as to why they locked up Japanese Americans was because during World War 2, Japanese were the enemies and the U.S. predicted that there would be spies in the U.S. that could give away valuable information, such as the routine of naval ships
Whilst on the Isle of Man, Private Lomas was an internee and prison guard at most of the internment camps, Douglas Aliens Detention Camp, Hutchinson Camp where world famous musicians, the Amadeus Quartet have there foundations. Private Lomas was also stationed at camps at Sefton, Granville, Ramsey North and Moorach on the 15th November 1941 After leaving the internment camp, Mae and Kingo settled back in Southern California. Unfortunately, stories like Mae's and Kingo's were very common during World War II. By examining their story next to the art of Ralph Williams and the popular propaganda that flooded American's lives, we can see the power of art and media Find many great new & used options and get the best deals for Switzerland WWII Italian Internment Camp Baetterkinden YMCA Cover 54109 at the best online prices at eBay! Free shipping for many products At issue is the fact that, after Italy's declaration of war against Canada on June. 10, 1940, the federal government interned more than 600 people of Italian heritage, and declared 31,000.
Captured Lives, Australia's Wartime Internment Camps tells the story of both interned civilians and POWs, from both the World Wars. As you might expect, the rules, procedures and conditions in WW2 were influenced by the Geneva Conventions updated between the wars, (a history interesting in itself, see Wikipedia) as well as the lessons Australia had learned from rather its indiscriminate. Internment definition: Internment is the practice of putting people in prison for political reasons . | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and example Loui6coins- Do your homework. German and Italian American families were made to register, and some ended up, like Japanese Americans, being sent to internee camps, like Crystal City. This also included, like the Japanese, US citizens, both naturalized and by birth, not just foreign nationals The Camp Narratives of Internment and Exclusion Edited by Colman Hogan and Marta Marín-Dòmine Cambridge Scholars Publishing The Camp: Narratives of Internment and Exclusion, Edited by Colman Hogan and Marta Marín-Dòmine This book first published 2007 by Cambridge Scholars Publishing 15 Angerton Gardens, Newcastle, NE5 2JA, UK British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue.
It provides, for the first time, a survey of the different types of internment practiced by Fascist Italy during the war and a historical map of its concentration camps. Published in Italian (I campi del duce, Turin: Einaudi, 2004), in Croatian (Mussolinijevi Logori, Zagreb: Golden Marketing - Tehnička knjiga, 2007), in Slovenian. Internment camp definition: a camp for the accommodation of internees , esp during wartime | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and example internment - WordReference English dictionary, questions, discussion and forums. All Free Japanese-American internment was the relocation and internment by the United States government in 1942 of approximately 110,000 Japanese Americans and Japanese who lived along the Pacific coast of the United States to camps called War Relocation Camps, in the wake of Imperial Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor.12 The internment of Japanese Americans was applied unequally throughout the United.