PICC line cellulitis symptoms

Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter Infections Definition. A peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) infection occurs when bacteria enters the bloodstream through or around a central line catheter.A PICC is a long, thin tube that is inserted through a vein in the arm. The catheter is threaded through the arm vein until it reaches a larger vein close to the heart Professional Healthcare, Inc. 2 of 4 I230 Responding to PICC Line Complications Elevation of the extremity. Mild exercise. If phlebitis does not resolve in 24-48 hours, if it progresses to a grade 3+, or if the client experiences severe pain or discomfort, the physician must be notified. Removal of the catheter is indicated. Cellulitis

Contact your doctor right away if you notice any signs or symptoms of PICC line complications, such as if: The area around your PICC line is increasingly red, swollen, bruised or warm to the touch You develop a fever or shortness of breath The length of the catheter that sticks out of your arm gets longe Simply avoid touching or manipulating the valves on your line, and this should be enough to prevent air from getting in. The most common symptoms of an air embolism are a sudden onset of breathlessness, nausea, and shoulder or chest pain. Should you experience any of these symptoms, you should see your healthcare provider immediately Cellulitis is a deep infection of the skin caused by bacteria. It usually affects the arms and legs. It can also develop around the eyes, mouth, and anus, or on the belly. Normal skin can be affected by cellulitis, but it usually happens after some type of injury causes a skin break, including trauma or surgery The Incidence of PICC line-associated thrombosis with and without the use of prophylactic anticoagulants. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2008; 32: 443 - 447. Tian G, Zhu Y, Qi L, Guo F, Xu H. Efficacy of multifaceted interventions in reducing complications of peripherally inserted central catheter in adult oncology patients

Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter Infections

  1. The PICC moves, and the part outside the skin is suddenly longer than it used to be (some PICC tubing has numbers that are visible and work as a visual guide) Arm or chest pain Soreness, redness, or swelling around the PICC line
  2. Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter (PICC) o Benefits • Long-term access - dwell time varies (can be > one year) • Decreased length of stay in hospital -allows for IV therapy in non-acute settings, i.e., home care /hospice/ skilled nursing facility (SNF) • Cost effective compared to all other central VAD
  3. Cellulitis Symptoms. Cellulitis occurs most often on the lower leg, but other parts of the body may be affected as well. Periorbital cellulitis is cellulitis by the eye. Cellulitis may also occur on the arm, breast, abdomen, and other areas. Cellulitis symptoms may include: Red, painful rash with scabs and blisters. Feeling of warmth on the skin
  4. While systemic symptoms vary from patient to patient, bad cases of cellulitis can cause someone to experience a fever or chills. The fever or chills might seem to go and come with no predictability; however, the worse the infection is, the more the fever and chills will persist. Fever is an indication of a serious case of systemic infection
  5. Definition. A peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) infection occurs when bacteria enters the bloodstream through or around a central line catheter]]>.A ]]> peripherally inserted central catheter]]> is a long, thin tube that is inserted through a vein in the arm. The catheter is threaded through the arm vein until it reaches a larger vein close to the heart

Cellulitis and edema. Posted Sep 20, 2012. by pellykate. Specializes in Psychiatric, School Health. Has 5 years experience. I'm in my third semester of nursing school.Tonight at clinical my patient had cellulitis caused by MRSA from a neglected PICC line. Go ahead and laugh at/berate me for my ignorance, but i was confused by her arm that. Symptoms. Symptoms vary depending on the type of spinal infection but, generally, pain is localized initially at the site of the infection. In postoperative patients, these additional symptoms may be present: Wound drainage. Redness, swelling or tenderness near the incision

Peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) line - Mayo

  1. Symptoms of phlebitis affect the arm or leg where the inflamed vein is located
  2. Cellulitis Symptoms and Signs Cellulitis usually begins as a small area of pain and redness on the skin. This area spreads to surrounding tissues, resulting in the typical signs of inflammation -- redness, swelling, warmth, and pain. A person with cellulitis can also develop fever and/or swollen lymph nodes in the area of the infection
  3. Overall PICC lines serve a useful purpose in more than 95% of patients. The duration of PICC lines may be from 4 weeks to 6 months. Over the long run, PICC lines do develop complications like infection, thrombosis and catheter blockage, but their benefits far outweigh these complications
  4. PICC line: Although still considered temporary, a PICC line can be inserted for chemotherapy injection and used for six weeks to a few months before it is discontinued. This involves the placement of a long plastic catheter into one of the larger veins of the arm. This procedure is a non-surgical outpatient procedure
  5. A bone infection may occur when bacteria or fungi invade the bone, causing many symptoms, including fever, redness, stiffness, and swelling

PICC Line Complications: Preventing Common Issues - Mighty

signs and symptoms. The commonest symptoms of any form of phlebitis are erythema and swelling along the venous track, leading to hardened, cord -like veins (Endacott et al, 2009). The area can feel warm and patients may experience pain or discomfort during drug adminis-tration (nurses should assess if this pain persists between administrations) Chronic DVT is a thrombus that is one month to several months old and usually involves symptoms, such as chronic swelling, ulceration, cellulitis, or other complication. Recurrent DVT indicates the condition has occurred more than once. The provider would need to document recurrent or chronic DVT, PICC line. She was transported to the.

Case. A 45-year-old female with a history of cellulitis requiring peripheral inserted central catheter (PICC) line placement for intravenous antibiotics presents two weeks after line removal with persistent, dull, aching pain in her right shoulder and difficulty removing the rings on her right hand COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) and asthma both have common symptoms like coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, and a tight feeling in the chest. COPD is caused by tobacco smoking, while asthma is caused by your inherited genetic makeup and their interactions with the environment. Risk factors for asthma are obesity, exposure to. Symptoms / signs of sepsis; on accessing the line; Prolonged use of the same line; Prevention; Proper aseptic technique on insertion and accessing the line; Don't insert a PICC through infected tissue; Don't leave the line in for too long; Management; Remove the PICC and send the tip for culture; Observe the site; Treat for cellulitis. Cellulitis is an inflammation of the tissue and occurs when bacteria enter through the insertion site and passes along the extra luminal pathway of the cannula. Clinical Signs and Symptoms Erythema Pain Tenderness Swelling Management Remove cannula Re-site cannula in opposite arm. In sever cases a PICC will b

Cellulitis Johns Hopkins Medicin

Symptoms of cellulitis include redness and warmth at the area of infected skin, fever and pain. The skin, which is being infected from within the deepest layer, may take on a shiny look. According to the Mayo Clinic website, the bacteria causing cellulitis, once within the bloodstream, can spread throughout the body PICC lines are a modern medical device that are commonly used for patients who are in need of intravenous therapy over a long period. Unlike standard IVs which can only be used for a short period of time and can cause damage or scarring to the veins after repeated insertions, a PICC line goes in once (with careful insertion) and can remain for as long as 12 months The symptoms of redness, swelling, and hardening of the skin that can accompany lymphedema can also be mistaken for cellulitis. (7) And the two conditions can co-exist Cellulitis Symptoms Cellulitis can appear on almost any part of the body. It usually shows up on damaged skin such as inflamed wounds, dirty cuts, and areas with poor circulation

Video: PICC Placement and Related Complications Journal of

‡ Clinical success: complete or nearly complete resolution of baseline signs and symptoms at post-therapy evaluation at days 14-24. **Pooled data calculated based on SOLO I and SOLO II data in Prescribing Information. SOLO I and SOLO II were two identical, randomized, double-blind, non-inferiority, Phase Owing to ease of insertion through peripheral veins of the upper extremity, peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) use has become increasingly popular. Although the insertion route of PICCs avoids complications such as pneumothorax or injury to the vessels of the neck and chest, PICCs are associated with important complications [ 1 ] Cellulitis is a bacterial infection of the skin. It starts with a break in the skin and spreads into the layers of connective tissue beneath the skin and even the lymph nodes if left untreated. Treatment usually consists of bandaging and a prescribed antibiotic regimen. Exercise may prevent cellulitis, and in some cases, may be part of treatment

PICC Line: Uses, Process, Risks, Safety, Recover

PICC (CANTRAL LINE) DRESSING CHANGE Remember a PICC is a Central Line Hand Hygiene Clean gloves, 2 masks, sterile gloves, Chlorhexidine-alcohol swabs and/or povidone-iodine swabs (facility policy), Sterile dressing Mask for RN and patient Remove old dressing in direction of insertion Inspect catheter site for inflammation, erythema/streaks. My cellulitis symptoms were violent shivering that lasted for about 4 hours, slight nausea, lower left leg swollen, red and with some pain, no appetite, and red patches on upper leg. I went to the emergency room and they started pumping antibiotics into me, was in the hospital for 11 days the first time and recovered completely Cellulitis From a Bug Bite. Bedbug bites, mosquito bites, spider bites and fly bites can break your skin. Bacteria (usually strep or staph) can enter the skin, especially when you scratch an itchy bug bite. The bacteria can cause cellulitis, a skin infection that causes red, swollen skin and fever. Antibiotics can help Rusty became adept at PICC-line antibiotics self-administration when he spent weekends with his Dad and step-Mom. Lori was always on call for us. We had several instances of PICC-line blockage that Lori was always able to clear. We appreciated having the double lines. Rusty never did receive a titanium plate for hs trephined skull

Infusion Therapy - Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter (PICC) Maintenance and Management of Potential Complications SECTION: 25.34 Strength of Evidence Level: 3 __RN__LPN/LVN__HHA (2) Cellulitis, when noted, may be successfully managed by a course of oral antibiotics such as dicloxicillin. Notify physician for appropriate medical therapy. e Periorbital cellulitis, also known as preseptal cellulitis, is a skin and soft tissue infection around that eye that is anterior to the orbital septum. Most instances rarely lead to serious complications but can present similarly to a more serious condition, orbital cellulitis, an infection posterior to the orbital septum. This condition, most common in children, is caused primarily by trauma. Watch for These Symptoms. Cellulitis most often affects the lower leg, but you can get it on other body parts. Common sites include the arm, eye area, breast, and belly

Necrotizing fasciitis (NECK-re-tie-zing FASH-e-i-tis) is a rare bacterial infection that spreads quickly in the body and can cause death. Accurate diagnosis, rapid antibiotic treatment, and prompt surgery are important to stopping this infection Laboratory confirmed bloodstream infection (not central line related) 1 positive blood culture with recognized pathogen from a venipuncture; Skin organisms: >2 blood cultures drawn on separate occasions positive for the same organism plus clinical symptoms; For suspected catheter-related bloodstream infection (CR-BSI) draw one set through. How are HML and PICC lines •Phlebitis, oedema, cellulitis (PICC) •Venous air embolism •DVT . INFECTION Treating line associated infections are important and if not treated, can be life threatening. SYMPTOMS OF CVAD INFECTION •A high temperature (fever).temp of 38oC or above •Redness, swelling and pain around the exit sit Also a PICC line was inserted in my right vein around my arm over my heart. Comment from: Pickle, 65-74 Female (Patient) Published: September 05 Cellulitis started with a ruptured Baker's cyst Am J Med 2015;128:722-738. The following are 10 key points from this systematic review of peripherally inserted central catheter-related deep vein thrombosis (PICC-DVT): The incidence of PICC-DVT varies between 2% and 75%, depending on the study population, testing modality, and threshold for diagnosis. The incidence is higher in critically ill.

Cellulitis: Pictures of Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment

PICC lines were used as primary means of central venous access. The most frequently reported adverse events at the symptoms waned, but a few days after the following In the first instances these symptoms were deemed a result of cellulitis and oral antibiotics were prescribed (flucloxacillin 500 mg four times daily). However, the. Peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) lines, unlike central catheters and ports, are not inserted directly into the central vein. A PICC line is inserted into a large vein in the arm and advanced forward into the larger subclavian vein. A surgeon or surgical assistant in a surgical suite usually inserts central catheters and ports Central venous port devices are indicated for patients, who need long-term intravenous therapy. Oncologic patients may require intermittent administration of chemotherapy, parenteral nutrition, infusions, or blood transfusions. A venous port system is composed of a port chamber attached to a central catheter, which is implanted into the central venous system

Previous studies undertaken to identify risk factors for peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC)-associated DVT have yielded conflicting results. PICC insertion teams and other health-care providers need to understand the risk factors so that they can develop methods to prevent DVT After surgery, patients still need to be on antibiotics, which normally are delivered through a catheter in a vein — a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) line. If there is a history of drug use, we cannot use a PICC line on those patients, due to concern that when they leave, they might shoot up through the PICC line, Dr. Gum. A patient had a PICC line placed 12 hours ago. She is now complaining of mild pain to the insertion site. You note redness, and mild swelling to the arm. Which statement about mechanical phlebitis is correct? A. signs and symptoms usually resolve less than 12 hours after treatment B. signs and symptoms usually resolve about 1 week after. Ertapenem (Invanz) was prescribed for a patient who came in to the hospital with cellulitis. The nurse performs the following assessments before administration. Asses for any allergies. Record the patient's temperature, pulse, respirations, and blood pressure. Obtain baseline assessments of presenting symptoms Therefore, sepsis due to a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) line is assigned to codes 999.32, 038.9, and 995.91. Sometimes the physician may document bacteremia due to a PICC line, which is classified to code 999.31 ( AHA Coding Clinic for ICD-9-CM , 2011, second quarter, pages 7-8)

I have been on a picc line several times with Iv antibiotics. I am being treated by an infectious disease doctor who is treating me with vancomycin and cefepime iv plus the cipro drops. These antibiotic seem to be working for me so if you havent tryed them consult your doctor and ask if maybe they might help in your situation The 2021 edition of ICD-10-CM T80.212 became effective on October 1, 2020. This is the American ICD-10-CM version of T80.212 - other international versions of ICD-10 T80.212 may differ. Applicable To. Exit or insertion site infection. Local infection due to Hickman catheter Symptoms of Endocarditis. If you know any patients with endocarditis and receiving treatment through a PICC line, He had cellulitis on his ankles. I didnt know what the doctor wss talking about. He assumed since we are homeless that my fiance is an IV drug user

Diagnosis was cellulitis and nasty infection In site of picc line. Doctor said if I'd left it a couple more days before I'd gone in could have been much worse as infection would have spread through blood. Phew! So back to chemo next week trying cannula again, not going through this again!! Peritonsillar cellulitis; acute tonsillitis (J03.-); chronic tonsillitis (J35.0); retropharyngeal abscess Other specified symptoms and signs involving the digestive system and abdomen. Presence of peripherally inserted central catheter (picc) line; Presence of umbilical catheter;. Cellulitis appears as a swollen, red area of skin that feels hot and tender, and it may spread rapidly . Left untreated, the spreading infection may rapidly turn life-threatening. That's why it's important to seek immediate medical attention if cellulitis symptoms occur. I have two regular clients who struggle with cellulitis Cellulitis causes an area of skin to suddenly become: red. hot. swollen. painful. tender. It most often affects the lower legs, but can occur anywhere. In more severe cases, cellulitis can also be accompanied - and often preceded - by: a high temperature (fever) of 38C (100.4F) or above Lower limb cellulitis and deep vein thrombosis share clinical features and investigation of patients with cellulitis for concurrent DVT is common. The prevalence of DVT in this group is uncertain. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in patients with lower limb cellulitis and to investigate the utility of applying the Wells algorithm to this patient group

Upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (UEDVT) accounts for approximately 5 to 10 percent of all cases of DVT with incidence increasing due to higher frequency of intravenous catheter use. 1 Veins considered to be deep classically have a corresponding named artery. In the upper extremity the deep veins include the paired radial veins, paired ulnar veins, paired brachial veins, axillary vein. I have been using for approximately 5 to 6 years and I have been hospitalized for abscesses 3 times. All 3 times my abscess resulted in pretty intense surgery and a very lengthy (3 months!) stay in an after-care facility. During after-care I was given a PICC line to administer fluids and antibiotics around the clock

How to Recognize Cellulitis Symptoms: 13 Steps (with Pictures

Cellulitis is a common bacterial infection of the lower dermis and subcutaneous tissue. It results in a localised area of red, painful, swollen skin, and systemic symptoms. Similar symptoms are experienced with the more superficial infection, erysipelas, so cellulitis and erysipelas are often considered together Peripherally Inserted Central Catheters (PICCs) are widely used for hospitalized patients and among outpatients. Despite many advantages, PICC-related complications can occur such as infection, thrombosis or mechanical complications. We aimed to evaluate rates and nature of PICC-related complications from insertion to removal and analyze risk factors of complications at baseline and during.

NolaG. February 14, 2021 at 2:54 pm. Report. Hydrocortisone helped me get rid of cellulitis around my stoma! Cut your wafer a bit bigger than normal so that the cellulitis is showing and the wafer will still stick and slather on the cream. It will take a few applications but it should really help. support I had a seroma after ovarian removal 3 years ago. I had a staph infection, cellulitis and mrsa. I had a picc line placed and IV atb for 4 months. A drain tube was also placed for 4 months. It can become very bothersome but once it starts healing correctly , you will feel much better Some signs and symptoms of cellulitis include: flushed, swollen, and painful areas that are warm and tender areas where the skin looks pitted or resembles orange pee PICC lines are inserted by the well trained PICC teams or interventional radiologists and the position is routinely confirmed with a chest X-ray. The ideal position being two centimeters below the sternoclavicular joint but in cadaver studies PICC lines inserted via the basilic veins can move up to 2.8cm with changes in arm position Central line infection can be local (e.g. phlebitis) or systemic (e.g. CLABSI) Central line. A central line is an intravascular access device or catheter that terminates at or close to the heart or in one of the great vessels; The line maybe used for infusion, or haemodynamic monitoring and may be inserted centrally or peripherally (i.e. PICC line


Infections are common complications among patients on chronic hemodialysis. Hemodialysis patients with a catheter have a 2- to 3-fold increased risk of hospitalization for infection and death compared with patients with an arteriovenous fistula or graft. 1 Catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs), exit-site infections, and tunnel infections are common complications related to. 1.1.13 Refer people to hospital if they have any symptoms or signs suggesting a more serious illness or condition, such as orbital cellulitis, osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, necrotising fasciitis or sepsis. 1.1.14 Consider referring people with cellulitis or erysipelas to hospital, or seek specialist advice, if they Cellulitis is a skin disease. Cellulitis Emergency happens when bacteria manages to get under the skin and spread to the tissues beneath, cellulitis can develop. The bacteria responsible are Streptococcus or Staphylococcus. In most cases, Cellulitis Emergency is not a serious, life-threatening condition and as a bacterial skin infection, is. I have a minor case of cellulitis on the lower half of my left inner thigh, I have what I believe is cellulitis on my right shin. The symptoms started this morning after I woke up; What the potential danger and omplication of a swelling of an arm 12 hrs after a picc line is removed. MD. Hello and welcome I really appreciate. The symptoms of necrotising fasciitis may not be obvious initially and develop quickly over hours or days. Early symptoms (usually within 24 to 48 hours) can include: Intense and severe pain which may seem disproportionate to the localised damage to the skin or external physical signs of infection on the ski

Lines: Cellulitis / pus from indwelling intravenous catheters (PICC / Hickman lines) Initial management of neutropenic sepsis. The two vital priorities are blood cultures (both from peripheral veins and any indwelling lines), and broad spectrum antibiotics midline and peripherally-inserted central catheter (PICC) line (both medium to long-term duration), with risk of infection and thrombosis Wherever possible, I suggest that clinicians discuss these issues with the patient, considering the overall risk-benefit of using an at-risk limb on an individual case-by-case basis

Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter Infection

• PICC line and Peripheral IV • Pressure ulcer treated with surgical debridement or sutured closed • Debridement of an existing wound (traumatic, skin graft, etc.) • Old surgical wound with scar or keloid formation • Ostomies even with drains (e.g. thoracostomy/chest tube, gastrostomy The pain, swelling and the red line, with proper treatment, typically resolves in a week or two, according to Tufts Medical Center. Taking anti-inflammatory medication and applying warm compresses may improve thrombophlebitis symptoms, says Mayo Clinic. Any swelling or inflammation can be lessened by elevating your legs, wearing compression. A suspected PICC-related bloodstream infection constituted failure to the meet the criteria for a confirmed line infection despite a strong suspicion by the primary medical team. A diagnosis of cellulitis was established on the basis of skin tenderness, erythema, edema, and purulent exudate that resolved with antibiotic treatment and/or.

Cellulitis and edema - General Nursing - allnurses

Cunha BA, Hamid N, Kessler H, Parchuri S. Daptomycin cure after cefazolin treatment failure of Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) tricuspid valve acute bacterial endocarditis from a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) line. Heart Lung. 2005 Nov-Dec. 34(6):442-7. Signs and symptoms. The commonest symptoms of any form of phlebitis are erythema and swelling along the venous track, leading to hardened, cord -like veins (Endacott et al, 2009). The area can feel warm and patients may experience pain or discomfort during drug administration (nurses should assess if this pain persists between administrations) Types Local infection - Cellulitis Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infections (CLABSI) 46. Causative Organisms Staph epidermidis 25-50% Staph aureus 25% Candida 5-10% Risk Factors Cutaneous colonization of the insertion site Moisture under the dressing Prolonged catheter time Technique of care and placement of the central line 47

Results. Among the 1054 participants (527 in each group), end-point data were available for 1015 (96.3%). Treatment failure occurred in 74 of 506 participants (14.6%) in the intravenous group and. These factors represent a break in the body's normal first line of defense and may indicate an infection. Assess for the presence of local infectious processes in the skin or mucous membranes. Signs and symptoms include localized swelling, localized redness, pain or tenderness, loss of function in the affected area, palpable heat A PICC (peripherally inserted central catheter) is a type of catheter, normally inserted in the upper arm. A PICC line is a safe, stable way to deliver intra-venous (IV) medications. It can stay in the body for weeks or months, alleviating the need to subject your veins to the numerous needle sticks necessary if the PICC was not there leading to chemical cellulitis. Symptoms of extravasation: redness Peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC line) A Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter (PICC) is a thin, long, soft plastic tube that functions as an intravenous (IV) line. A PICC allows your nurses and doctors to administer medications and fluids on a frequent basis A panel of national experts was convened by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) to update the 2005 guidelines for the treatment of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). The panel's recommendations were developed to be concordant with the recently published IDSA guidelines for the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections

Contact your doctor immediately if signs or symptoms of hypopituitarism develop suddenly or are associated with a severe headache, visual disturbances, confusion or a drop in blood pressure. These could be signs and symptoms of sudden destruction of the pituitary gland tissue (pituitary apoplexy), often caused by bleeding into the pituitary gland Bacteremia is the presence of bacteria in the bloodstream. Bacteremia may result from ordinary activities (such as vigorous toothbrushing), dental or medical procedures, or from infections (such as pneumonia or a urinary tract infection ). Having an artificial joint or heart valve or having heart valve abnormalities increases the risk that.

Spinal Infection - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

2.4 The removal of a PICC can be performed by the nurse or authorized prescriber who have received training and demonstrated competency as outlined in this guideline. 2.5 In the Community Intravenous Program, nurses may remove the PICC without an order when the nurse recognizes that the patient has used the line for purposes other than th A few types of infections related to IV drug use include: Staph infections. One of the most common types of IV-drug-related infections, staphylococcus (staph) infections can manifest as a red bump or boil that may look like a pimple or a spider bite. The area may appear swollen, red and sore to the touch Ontology: Superficial thrombophlebitis (C1510431) Thrombosis and inflammation of a superficial vein of the extremities. Symptoms include red discoloration and warmth of the skin and pain along the affected vein. A disorder characterized by a blood clot and inflammation involving a superficial vein of the extremities

Phlebitis: Symptoms, Causes, Prevention, and Mor

A PICC line provides the best of both worlds concerning venous access. Similar to a standard IV, it is inserted in the arm, and usually in the upper arm under the benefits of ultrasound visualization Dalbavancin and oritavancin could be used to eliminate the need for PICC line in long treatment courses in IVDA for example, and might be cost-effective. It was useful to know that the residents in OHSU still use zosyn a lot. Also that 5 days of antibiotics is sufficient for treatment of most infections. 1 Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) is a potentially debilitating disorder associated with serious complications such as lower extremity venous ulcers. This article reviews the incidence and pathophysiology of CVI, nursing assessment, diagnosis and interventions, and patient education needed to manage the disease and prevent complications. Figure Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is the formation of a blood clot in a deep vein, most commonly in the legs or pelvis. A minority of DVTs, an estimated 4-10%, occur in the arms. Symptoms can include pain, swelling, redness, and enlarged veins in the affected area, but some DVTs have no symptoms. The most common life-threatening concern with DVT is the potential for a clot to embolize (detach from.